Marine Mammal Commission

Threats to Hawaiian Monk Seals

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

Food Limitation

Variable juvenile survival strongly influences monk seal population trends. This has been noted since the late 1980s, when survival of young seals began to decrease in the largest monk seal subpopulation at French Frigate Shoals. Although a variety of factors affect juvenile survival, underweight and starving pups and juveniles with no evidence of underlying disease indicate that low prey availability is a significant threat to their survival. Efforts to mitigate impacts of food limitation on survival began in the 1980s and early 1990s. While successful, they were expensive and exposed seals to various additional risks and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) halted the program until recently. In 2014 a new monk seal hospital, built by The Marine Mammal Center, opened allowing efforts to rehabilitate underweight seals to resume. The facility has successfully treated and released approximately 20 underweight young seals, demonstrating that, with appropriate care, rehabilitation offers a potentially significant contribution to recovery for this species.

Translocations (movement of seals from one part of their range to another) have also been used by NMFS for various reasons, including food limitation, and have proven to be a successful tool in Hawaiian monk seal conservation (Baker et al. 2011c).

Shark Predation

In the mid-1990s, shark predation on monk seal pups increased sharply at French Frigate Shoals. Nearly a third of all pups born at the atoll in 1996 were either known or suspected to have been killed by sharks (Harting 2010).

Such predation is believed to have killed 24 percent of the pups born at this atoll between 1997 and 2010. By comparison, pup deaths attributed to sharks at Laysan and Lisianski Islands over the same period amounted to just 2 percent and 4 percent, respectively. Shark predation has remained substantially higher at French Frigate Shoals than at other NWHI sites. In 2013 a third of all pups there were known or suspected to have died of shark attacks. All observed shark attacks at French Frigate Shoals since 1997 have been by Galapagos sharks. It is believed that a small number of sharks have learned to patrol pupping beaches to catch unwary pups. To reduce such deaths, NMFS field teams have moved newly weaned pups to other islets within the atoll where shark predation is less common. In 2015, 17 pups were moved from islets with high risks of shark predation at French Frigate Shoals to other islets where those risks were lower. This intra-atoll translocation practice is ongoing.

To further mitigate shark predation, NMFS has pursued efforts to remove individual Galapagos sharks that prey upon seal pups. NMFS has tested various shark deterrents((Gobush and Farry 2010),  but those methods proved ineffective. Studies of shark movements at French Frigate shoals indicate that only about 20-30 of the estimated 600 Galapagos sharks at the atoll patrolled waters near monk seal pupping beaches. Catching the sharks that prey on monk seal pups has continued to prove very challenging, and predation continues to account for a large portion of pup mortality at French Frigate Shoals.

Entanglement in Marine Debris

Number of Hawaiian monk seals observed entangled from 1982 through 2013. (NOAA's Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center)

Number of Hawaiian monk seals observed entangled from 1982 through 2013. (NOAA’s Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center)

Since 1982, NMFS field teams have documented more than 300 seals entangled in marine debris, including derelict fishing gear. Huge amounts of marine debris are transported to Hawaii from throughout the North Pacific by ocean currents. The total number of seals that drown at sea or die of entanglement-caused wounds when biologists are not present is unknown. Most entangled seals are juveniles. Nearly all known entanglements have occurred in the NWHI, with relatively few in the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI).

In addition to disentangling animals, field crews have been removing hazardous debris from NWHI beaches since the early 1980s. In 1996, work also began to remove net debris from shallow waters around NWHI atolls. Clean up work is now coordinated by the NMFS’s Ecosystem Sciences Division, but also involves the Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service, the state of Hawaii, and non-governmental groups and volunteers. Since 1996 more than 850 metric tons of netting and other debris have been removed. This has likely prevented the death and injury of monk seals, as well as sea turtles, seabirds, fish, crabs, and corals.

Main Hawaiian Islands

Deliberate Killing

Since 2009, at least a dozen monk seals have been deliberately killed on the MHI. Accompanying this development has been the spread of misinformation about monk seals, such as “monk seals eat their weight in fish every day, their foraging poses a threat to the status of preferred commercial and recreational finfish, and monk seals are a non-native species introduced into the MHI by the government”. Despite extensive public outreach to correct such inaccurate information, deliberate killings have continued since 2009. In 2017 a juvenile female seal died on Molokai due to blunt-force trauma.


In the MHI, monk seals can be injured or killed by hooks when taking bait or fish from the lines of nearshore fishermen. Since 2014 NMFS has intervened in over thirty hooking cases with surgeries sometimes required to successfully remove the hook(s). Several animals have had to be handled more than once to remove hooks. This indicates a need for community engagement and increased communication with fisherman to minimize seal-fisher interactions and find alternative solutions, while continuing the de-hooking activities, to reduce this threat.


Monk seals are vulnerable to infectious diseases spread by pets, feral cats and dogs, rodents, livestock, insects and other vectors introduced into the MHI but not found in the NWHI. Among those of particular concern for monk seals are distemper viruses, Leptospira spp., and Toxoplasma gondii and West Nile Virus. Toxoplasmosis is proving to be a particularly significant threat to monk seals—a disease caused by a parasite shed in cat feces. Since 2004 toxoplasmosis has caused the deaths of at least 12 monk seals in the MHI. To mitigate effects of disease, monk seals are being vaccinated against canine distemper virus and some de-worming trials have been conducted (Gobush et al 2011).

Non-lethal Human Interactions

Beachgoers as well as their pet dogs can disturb seals that haul out on beaches to rest, molt, and rear pups. Such disturbance can force seals into the water interfering with these necessary seal behaviors. In some cases, people have fed seals or otherwise encouraged direct interactions with seals, resulting in their acclimation to people. This, in turn, can increase the possibility of seals approaching and harming people. In the interest of public safety, the seals involved in these interactions are sometimes caught and translocated to areas where they will not interact with people.

At times these interactions have been malicious. In 2016, a man was arrested for approaching a pregnant female monk seal resting on a Kauai beach and striking it in head several times with his fist. Video of the attack was recorded by a passerby on a cell phone and the man was charged with violating MMPA provisions prohibiting harassment of marine mammals. In 2016, NMFS staff and its partners responded to 20 cases that required seals being displaced to protect human safety (e.g., seals in semi-enclosed areas with high levels of human activity, particularly involving children) or seal safety (e.g. seals on boat ramps or in polluted canals).


As noted above, monk seal research and management staff and their partners undertake a number of interventions each year to address various life threatening or hazardous situations (e.g., dehookings, disentanglement, entrapped animals, clipping umbilical cords, reuniting mothers and pups, treating abscesses, deworming, and hazing animals away from hazardous situations). Between 1980 and 2016, 1,165 interventions were made, including 38 in 2016. Analyses of those cases indicate that about 75 percent of those cases (885 interventions) have probably or likely improved the involved animals’ survival chances. From subsequent information on the survival and reproduction of treated animals, NMFS estimates that up to 28% of the current population has benefited from interventions.